Remember, remember, the fifth of November, when Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated throughout Britain. The holiday commemorates the failure of the Gunpowder Plot, a 1605 conspiracy that would have decapitated the British government by blowing up Parliament, King James I, and his ministers.
The plot was conceived by Robert Catesby, a Roman Catholic who believed that Catholic rights would be diminished under the Stuart monarchy. To assist him, Catesby assembled a group of coconspirators. Among them was Guy Fawkes, a British soldier of fortune whose name and visage would become inextricably linked with the plot.
The plotters rented a cellar that extended beneath Westminster Palace, and there Fawkes planted dozens of barrels of gunpowder. The government learned of the plot, however, and Fawkes was arrested. Under torture, he revealed the names of his coconspirators, and all were either executed or killed while being apprehended.
Parliament subsequently declared that November 5 be celebrated as an annual day of thanksgiving, and a variety of traditions became associated with the date. Children created effigies of Fawkes and paraded them around, asking neighbors for “pennies for the Guy.” The effigies were often burned in bonfires, and celebratory displays of fireworks represented the gunpowder that the plotters had hoped to detonate.
A 21st-century analysis estimated that the 5,500 pounds (2,500 kg) of gunpowder used by the plotters would have been more than sufficient to destroy Parliament. Fawkes, an explosives expert, had used roughly 25 times the amount of gunpowder necessary to bring down the building. The resulting explosion would have devastated central London, causing serious damage to buildings up to a third of a mile away.