As a result of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, changes took place in Europe and the standard of Europe has deteriorated. With the French Revolution, concepts such as freedom, republic, nationalism spread to Europe. Especially in France, this situation was influential. As these confusions continued, Napoleon became the emperor of France with the 18th Brumaire coup. Napoleon was a successful soldier and expanded his sovereignty. This situation and the attitude of Napoleon caused many coalition wars. The Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in the Battle of Leipzig. Later, they launched an attack on France and took Paris. They forced Napoleon down from the throne and sent him to exile to Elba Island. The French lost a great majority of the places they acquired after the revolution. Afterwards Napoleon succeeded in escaping and took over the country. When Napoleon fled, there was preparation for the conclusion document of the Vienna Congress but the Battle of Waterloo was defeated again. This time Napoleon was sent to the island of Saint Helena. Thus, the European states were completely free from Napoleon.
With the withdrawal of Napoleon, the political order in Europe deteriorated and there was a gap. It was inevitable to correct this situation and to make decisions about the future of Europe. The situation was so complicated that there were differences between the states, even as to which subjects were to be discussed. For example, Russia did not want the Ottoman State and the Balkans to be discussed. In such an environment, the Vienna Congress was convened in September 1814. The Vienna congress was bie congress, not so big as then. This congress was attended by many representatives from European countries. However, the congress had the promise of 4 great powers and victors – England, Russia, Austria and Prussia. In France, XVIII. Louis’s foreign minister Talleyrand was represented. At the request of the Allies, the Bourbonos returned to administration. Thus, France was almost out of state.
Countries in the Congress had some desire. For example, Russia wanted to establish an international common security system. Britain, Austria and France wanted a balance in continental Europe. The states did not want all Europe to be dominated by a single state. Hence, they were looking for measures to prevent this. The diplomats were organizing work to emphasize this. Diplomats were trying to achieve this by distributing the forces in a balanced way and making some border changes. Thus they thought that the ‘Strength of Balance’ system could provide a peace environment. The Vienna Congress focused on the subject of France in particular. France has created political problems in Europe. France should be kept under control so that there is no new problem. Thus, a barricade of strong states was established on the eastern border of France. Hence, the Kingdom of the Netherlands was reestablished with the addition of Belgium. Thanks to England some land in the west of the Rhine was given to Prussia. Thus Prussia strengthened against Russia and France.
Some decisions taken at the Vienna Congress:
-Belgium and the Netherlands will be united and the Niederland state will be established.
-The Germanic Confederation will be established.
-The Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway will be united and the Kingdom of Sweden – Norway will be established.
-Switzerland has become an independent and permanent neutral state.
-East Galicia, Lombardia, and Venice will be given Austria.
-The monarchs and kingdoms that Napoleon ended his governments would again have their country and their throne.
-France will be drawn to the limits of the revolution.
-Warsaw was a large duke, and Finland will be given Russia.
Thus, the borders of Europe, which were destroyed by the Napoleonic Wars, were redrawn.
-The protection of the absolute kingdoms has been decided.
-A policy called the “METTERNICH SYSTEM” was established. Metternich is an agreement between European states. According to the treaty, if there is a riot for nationalism in a European state, other European states will act together.
-In addition, Russia wanted to share the Ottoman State by bringing up the Oriental question, but it was not supported.
The years 1815-1827 are called the restoration period in Europe. It was given this name because it was rearranged in Europe, which was destroyed by Napoleon. This period came to an end with the burning of the Ottoman navy in Navarin in 1827.
The Vienna Congress has a prescription for the international system because for the first time in this congress the European states have begun to meet around a common diplomacy. The system we call ‘International Law’ has also been laid. The Vienna Congress can be linked to many international organizations in today. In particular, the origin of supra-national organizations such as the United Nations and the European Union is shown as the Vienna Congress.
As a result, the power balance system, which began at the end of the XVIII century, was restored by the Vienna Congress.
 Prof.Dr.Çağrı Erhan, Prof.Dr. Ömer Kürkçüoğlu, Yrd.Doç. Dr. Gökhan Erdem, Doç. Dr. Kemal Yakut, Doç.Dr. Esra Yakut Siyasi Tarih I. Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları.